Week 6 Blog Journal: Crisis Management and Issues in the Internet Era

Mediated Crisis Management on the Internet

In the essay “Taxonomy of mediated crisis responses”, published in Issue 33 of Public Relations Review, Taylor and Kent argue for the usage of the Internet as a medium of mediated crisis response. They also offer several suggestions for the best practices and individual details of individual steps and actions that can be taken during each phrase of a crisis.

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Week 7 Blog Journal: Grand Strategy, Strategy and Tactics

In chapter 8 of Public Relations Theory II, Carl Botan introduces the notion of a meta-strategy level of discursive activity within the sphere of public relations activities: the grand strategy. Grand strategies are organisation-wide or meta-organisational policies or practices which function to direct the actions of all parts of the organisation or organisations. The notion of a grand strategy is functionally similar to ideas of organisation culture in that both are notions professing hegemonic influence that dictates strategy. Meta-strategy exists within a level of meaning that often is invisible to pure ethnography, and the discourses surrounding them are rarely formalised and therefore are hard to prove conclusively. Notwithstanding this limitation, the author proposes a commonplace notion of strategy, which in turn dictates the tactics used.

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Week 8 Blog Journal: Evaluation Techniques

Chapter 12 of Richard Stanton’s Media Relations book focusses exclusively on the use of evaluation methods in media relations and public relations. As the scope of PR campaigns are only limited by one’s creativity, there can be all manners of activities and passivities which can be construed as public relations. As such, no one evaluation method can be applied universally across all strategies or campaigns. Adaptation, combination, and derivation and hence the keys to formulating useful and sound evaluations.
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Week 9 Blog Journal: Media Relations and News

Steve Jobs and Dennis Ritchie

Steve Jobs versus Dennis Ritchie: Even if you invented computing language as we know it today, you can be a nobody. Image source: Facebook

Chapter 6 of Richard Stanton’s book “Media Relations” describes the relationships between PR practioners(agents),their clients, and the media(more specifically, traditional  media as opposed to citizen media). He then describes how the media , the agent, and the client each desire to fulfil a goal in the co-creation of news, and each asserts a self-motivated influence on the piece of news discourse. Stanton then proposes how the agent(PR practitioner) can work within these selfish motivations to create viable media relations: between themselves, clients, and the media. These involve the profiling of the individuals in the media and the positioning of the issues within frames such as to maximise the news angles that the media wants with the coverage that clients want. These also involved synergies the agent can leverage upon to create unique angles while maintaining the level of client satisfaction.
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Week 9- Chapter 6 [Irene Lee @ Khine Yin Win (3119122)]

Chapter 6- Developing Media Relationships Around News


In media relations, the media cannot exist without the source, and the source cannot exist without the media. In terms of PR, the source is what the practitioner can do to attract the attention of the media so that there is publicity for the organization or association. It pretty much means that PR practitioners need to beautify a story in order for it to be sold to the media. The angle and issue has to be twisted in a way to attract the media’s attention and create hype and interest to the public. The whole idea sounds easy but it certainly is not.

It becomes worse if what you are trying to sell is a product or service that has little potential of gaining media publicity- such as a car wash service. Thus, it requires a lot of creativity and thought before something can actually happen.

Here’s an example that will further explain what I mean.

Take Organized Clutter Daily (OCD), Singapore’s first professional organizing service. A simple service that pretty much lacked what the media would deem as news worthy. Yet, the organization was able to grab the media’s attention especially the magazines. The organization first started in 2009 and in June to August of that year, they were able to get five magazines, Elle, Men’s Health, Shape, Cleo, Simply Her to cover the organization’s service.

The question was how did they do this and what was so news worthy about a professional service that organized your room?

The answer is that the organization angled their service towards the idea that clutter around the house caused stress and other health related concerns. They also provided simple ideas and ‘do-it-yourself’ advices to keep the house, workplace, or any environment clutter free. Thus, they targeted the lifestyle magazines.

The simplicity of the idea to tie in health and clutter together gave the opportunity for the organization to gain publicity while still selling their service in a non-obvious way.



OCD, 2010. About Us. Available at: <http://www.ocd.com.sg/about-us.php> [Accessed 26 October 2011].

Stanton, R., 2007. Media Relations, Oxford University Press Melbourne.

Week 8- Chapter 12 [Irene Lee @ Khine Yin Win (3119122)]

Chapter 12- Measuring Successful Relationships: Approaches to Research Methods


In every PR campaign or event, there needs to be a process that measures the success of these actions. This process is called evaluation and it is an essential part of any communication campaign. The reason being is that evaluation allows the PR practitioner and the organization to understand all aspects of the media campaign from the basic stages of planning and designing to the final stages of implementation.


Evaluation helps to determine the effectiveness, achievement of goals and efficiency of goals in a PR campaign as Stanton suggests. He further relates how evaluation should be conducted in three steps- formative, process and summative evaluation.


The formative evaluation takes place at the start of the campaign and to simply describe it, it is the step that allows the media practitioner to reevaluate the already thought out plan for an event or campaign. On a more important aspect the formative evaluation requires thorough research on all factors concerning the planned campaign and will aid to prioritize the research and design to fit with client’s objectives.


The process evaluation takes place throughout the campaign and seeks to evaluate the success in between phases of a campaign. For instance, for every event of the campaign, the media practitioner will conduct an evaluation to access the level of success of the ongoing campaign. The evaluation could be conducted in terms of media coverage and whether the actions that took place by the organization were viewed in a positive or negative light by the media.


The summative evaluation is the final process of evaluating a campaign. It is the end evaluation of all the events and actions that took place during the campaign. Summative evaluation as the name explains is the summation of the campaign.


Personally, I think evaluation is a process that will really help develop the PR in a company for both present campaigns and future ones. Evaluation is important not only in the communication aspect but also, for other initiatives. It is an important process in the introduction of a new product and it helps to understand whether the process is successful, reasons behind why it is or is not successful and more importantly, how it can be improved.




Stanton, R., 2007. Media Relations, Oxford University Press Melbourne.



NPO Media – Blog Journal – Week 8 – Louis Lee

Based on readings from Media Relations, Chapter 9,  Community, Not-for-profit, and Interest Groups

For nonprofit organizations such as the Salvation Army or the Red Cross, profit is usually not their primary goal and their stakeholders (including the media) are not  usually their shareholders.

Not-for-profit organizations commonly rely on ideologies, the shaping of ideas to form a coherent argument that will justify actions. These include liberalism and conservatism (often referred to politically as the “left-wing” and “right-wing” or “left” and “right” parties respectively), socialism, feminism and the so-called “green ideology” with its inclination towards ecological conservation and grassroots democracy.

21st Century ideologies, Stanton claims, have a tendency to cannibalise elements from other ideologies and reform them to suit the needs of the individual community.

The watchword in this chapter is “Community”. “Community” as explained by Stanton refers to “an organized political, municipal or social body” alternatively “a body of people working/living together or a body of people having a faith, profession or other identification in common”. Coherent argument are shaped to justify actions, such as affecting change or acting to retain a status quo.

The “community” is powerful because it conveys a sense of belonging, a sense that they allow individuals to identify themselves with a particular subset of culture and in which they “fit in”. It may not truly exist given today’s itinerant fast-moving culture, but this community ideology, with its existence springing up within the larger surrounding system, still retains its power.

Not-for-profit organizations capitalize on the relationship building process, considering the support of those within the communal sphere and the transference of the individual relationship of trust and support to its stakeholders (including that of the media) the central strategies in this regard.

In media this is ostensibly regarded as “core competence”, the reason why community groups perform better at building media relationships through selectively choosing media , while successfully framing and focusing on core issues they are tackling.

Not for profit ideologies are based on the aims of support and assistance, staffed mainly by unpaid professional volunteers and  adopting conservative or liberal views to mesh with whichever community (and government party) they wish to be affiliated with. Like corporate bodies, not-for-profit organizations tend to have media coverage and stakeholders, at times having access to limited funding from the government or associated parties.


Stanton, R. (2007). Media Relations, Oxford University Press Melbourne.







a public relations firm that specialises in helping independent media groups find an audience at modest compensation.

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